By Shaykh Muhammad Saalih al-’Uthaimeen
Thirteen years after the commencement of the prophetic message, in the month of Rabee’ Al-Awwaal, the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, reached Madinah having left from Makkah, which was the initial point of revelation and the most beloved of places to him. He left Makkah as an emigrant, in compliance with the command of his Lord, after he had spent 13 years there calling to the clear guidance of the message of his Lord. During this period he, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, and his followers were confronted with rejection, defiance and even physical harm from Quraysh (his tribe).
Moreover, Quraysh even conspired to kill him when their leaders met and exchanged views in order to decide on what course of action to take regarding the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, and his followers. They felt endangered by the message of the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, and when some of his companions emigrated to Madinah, they knew that he would join them there sooner or later. They knew also about the pledge that the Ansaar (the Madinan supporters of the Prophet) had given to the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, which stipulated that they would protect him from any kind of harm, just as they protected their own wives and children.
Quraysh feared the revenge of the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, and his followers if they had the opportunity of establishing themselves firmly in Madinah. Therefore, during the meeting of the elders of Quraysh, Abu Jahl said: “My opinion is that we should select a strong young man from each of our tribes and give each a sword to strike Muhammad all at the same time. On doing so, his blood will spread among all the Arab tribes – and it will be impossible for the Banu ‘Abd Manaaf (the clan to which the Prophet belonged) to revenge his death, rather they will be obliged to take the diyyah (blood-money).”
“And [remember, O Muhammad], when those who disbelieved plotted against you to restrain you or kill you or evict you [from Makkah]. But they plan, and Allah plans. And Allah is the best of planners.” (Al-Anfaal: 30).
Despite this, Allah revealed the entire conspiracy to the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, and permitted him to emigrate to Madinah. Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, who had prepared himself for the move to Madinah, was told several times by the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, to wait. It was clear that the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, wanted to accompany him in the journey of Hijrah, as he, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, said to him: “Wait, for I hope that Allah will allow me also to emigrate.”
‘Aa’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, narrated: “One day, at midday, while we were sitting in our house, someone said to Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him: ‘Here comes Allah’s Apostle, with his head and part of his face covered with a cloth (i.e. wishing to conceal his identity), at an hour in which he has never come to us’. Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said: ‘Let my father and mother be sacrificed for you (an expression that indicates the level of sacrifice that the person expressing it is prepared to make), (O Prophet)! It must have been an urgent matter that brought you here at this hour.’ The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam asked permission to enter and then did so, he sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam then said to Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him: “Let those who are here with you leave.” Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, replied: ‘These people are your family (i.e. there is no need for them to leave because they are your own people); Let my father be sacrificed for you, O Allah’s Apostle!’ The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, then said: “I have been given permission leave (Makkah).” Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, asked: ‘Can I accompany you, O Allah’s Apostle? Let my father be sacrificed for you!’ The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, replied: “Yes.” Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said: ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Let my father be sacrificed for you! Take one of these two she-camels of mine.’ The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, replied: “I will take it only on the condition that I pay you for it.”
So we packed their baggage and placed food for their journey into a leather bag. Then the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, and Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, set off on their journey. After this, they arrived at a mountain named Thawr and remained there for three nights. ‘Abdullah bin Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, who was an intelligent young man, would stay with them two at night and leave before dawn so that in the morning, he could be among the Quraysh in Makkah and act as if he had spent the whole night there. If he heard of any plot contrived by the Quraysh against the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, and Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, he would return and inform them two of the plot after dark.”
Quraysh exerted the maximum effort to seize the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam and his companion, may Allah be pleased with him. They searched in all directions and could not find them and so they announced a reward of one hundred camels for anybody who could seize either or both of them. However, it was Allah’s plan to protect them, for some men from the Quraysh reached the very cave where the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, and his companion, may Allah be pleased with him, were hiding – but were unable to spot them.
Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “I said to the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, when we were in the cave: ‘O Messenger of Allah, if any of them looks down at their feet, they will see us.’ The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, replied, assuringly: “What do you think about two companions, of whom Allah is the third? (i.e. in terms of assistance)”.
When Quraysh’s pursuit abated, the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, and Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, left the cave after three nights and headed for Madinah following the coastline. A young man by the name of Suraaqah bin Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, who had not yet at that time embraced Islam caught sight of them on his horse. When Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, turned back and saw him, he said: “Messenger of Allah, someone is following us.” The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, replied: “Don’t be anxious; for Allah is with us.” When Suraaqah came closer to them and heard the Prophet’s recitation of the Qur’an, the forelegs of his horse sank into the hard ground, so much so that the horse’s stomach touched the ground. Suraaqah dismounted and spurred the horse until it stood up, but its forelegs were struggling, causing dust to rise up into the sky like smoke.
Recalling this at a later date, Suraaqah said: “I felt then that the Prophet’s affair will come to prominence some day, (i.e. I knew that the day would come when his message would be accepted by the masses) so I cried out at them giving them a pledge of security. The Messenger of Allah, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, was standing ahead of me with his companion. I mounted my horse and rode until I reached them and told them about the plots contrived against them. I offered them food and luggage and said to the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam: ‘You will pass by some flocks of sheep and camels that belong to me; you may take what you need from them.’ The Prophet replied: “I have no need of this, just conceal your knowledge of us.”
Suraaqah headed back to where he had set out from and diverted all those he came across away from the direction that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam and his companion, may Allah be pleased with him, were heading towards. It seems so strange that Suraaqah, who first sought after the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam and his companion, may Allah be pleased with him, to seize them ended up giving them his full support. This is the support Allah gives to those who serve His cause.
When news of the Prophet’s Hijrah reached the people of Madinah from among the Muhaajireen (those Muslims who emigrated from Makkah) and Ansaar (the Madinan supporters of the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), they would go out to Al-Harrah, which is a place on the outskirts of Madinah, in anticipation of the Prophet’s arrival, until they would be forced back by the heat of the sun. When the day of arrival of the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, finally came, a Jew who was looking for something on a hillock in Madinah saw him approaching. Despite his enmity, he could not help but cry out: “O Arabs! This is your long-awaited fortune and honour.”
The Muslims hastened to meet the Messenger of Allah, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, with their weapons, as an honorary reception as well as an indication of their readiness for Jihad in the cause of Allah and to defend him. They met him at a place in Al-Harrah and he, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, diverted his course rightward and settled in the Banu ‘Amr bin ‘Awf in Qooba’ (a place on the outskirts of Madinah) where he stayed for some nights and built a mosque. He then went on to Madinah accompanied by many people, while many others lined the roadside.
Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, related: “When we came to Madinah, people went out onto the roads and onto the tops of houses, along with their children and servants, crying: “Allaahu Akbar! The Messenger of Allah has come! Allaahu Akbar! Muhammad has come!” Anas bin Maalik, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated: “I was walking among small boys, since I was one of them, while people were crying out: ‘Muhammad has come! Muhammad has come!’ So the people repeated these words out of joy due to the Prophet’s arrival, who was the dearest to them. What an arrival! It filled the hearts with joy, pleasure and delight and illuminated the horizons with happiness.”
When the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, reached Madinah, the various tribes of Al-Ansaar rivalled each other in leading the Prophet’s she-camel to their dwellings, each saying: ‘Come, O Messenger of Allah! Stay with us! We are great in number, fully armed and ready to defend you’ The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, replied, regarding his she-camel: “Let it go where it wishes, for it is inspired. I will stay where Allah wished me to stay.” The she-camel stood in the place where he, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, later built his mosque, it knelt down and remained there for sometime, while the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, remained on its back. After this, the she-camel got up again and the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, loosened its bridle, it walked for a short distance and then returned to the previous location and knelt down. Upon this the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, said: “Here is the settling place, Allah willing”. The place where the she-camel knelt belonged to two orphans, who offered to give it to the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, for free, but he refused and instead he purchased it from them.
Then Allah’s Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, asked: “Whose is the nearest of the houses to here?” A man called Abu Ayyoob, may Allah be pleased with him, replied: ‘Mine, O Allah’s Prophet! This is my house and this is my gate.’ The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, then said: “Go and prepare a place for our midday rest.” Abu Ayyoob, may Allah be pleased with him, prepared it, then returned and said: ‘Come along, both of you, with the blessings of Allah.’
When Allah’s Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, went into the house, a man named ‘Abdullah ibn Salaam, may Allah be pleased with him, came and said: “I testify that you (i.e. Muhammad) are Apostle of Allah and that you have come with the truth. The Jews know very well that I am their chief and the son of their former chief and the most learned amongst them and the son of the former most learned amongst them. So send for them (i.e. the Jews) and ask them about me before they know that I have embraced Islam, for if they know that then they will say about me things which are not correct.”
So Allah’s Apostle, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, sent for them and they came and entered. Allah’s Apostle said to them: “O Jews! Woe to you! Fear Allah! I swear by Allah besides Whom none has the right to be worshipped that you people know for certain that I am the Apostle of Allah and that I have come to you with the truth, so embrace Islam.” The Jews replied: “We do not know this.” So he, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, repeated this twice and they repeated their answer twice. Then he, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, asked them: “What sort of a standing does ‘Abdullah ibn Salaam have amongst you?” They said: “He is our chief, the son of our former chief and the most learned man, the son of the former most learned man amongst us.”
He, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, said: “What would you think if he should embrace Islam?” They replied: “Allah forbid! He cannot embrace Islam.” He, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, repeated the question and they repeated the response, then he called out: “O Ibn Salaam! Come out to them.” He came out and said: ‘O Jews! Be afraid of Allah besides Whom none has the right to be worshipped. You know for certain that he is Apostle of Allah and that he has brought the true religion!” The Jews replied: “You are a liar.” On that Allah’s Apostle, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, turned them out. ‘Abdullah ibn Salaam, may Allah be pleased with him, then said: “Did I not tell you, Messenger of Allah, that they are a people of falsehood, betrayal, lying and obscenity?”
That was the Prophet’s emigration, who left his home town to call to the religion of Allah and reform His servants.
Fear Allah! O servants of Allah and abandon acts of disobedience so that you can all at least achieve one kind of Hijrah. (This refers to the abandonment of sins. According to Islam, Hijrah is of two kinds: literal, which denotes moving from one place to another in order to be able to practise one’s religion, and metaphorical which means the abandonment of sins). Whoever abandons something which he likes for Allah’s sake, Allah will reward him with something better. Whoever sticks to piety and goodness, Allah will be with him. Allah the Almighty said that which translates as: “Indeed, Allah is with those who fear Him and those who are doers of good.” (Al-Nahl: 128).
Choosing good companionship
Choosing and having good companions is extremely important for many reasons and from many aspects.
1. Mankind cannot live alone; every individual must live and interact with others, and when interacting with others one either influences or is himself influenced.
2. Those people whom you sit with and make your friends are inevitably going to fall into one of two categories. They will either be good individuals - who guide and encourage you towards what is good and help you to accomplish that which Allah has ordered, or they are going to be bad - encouraging you to do what is pleasing to Satan, that which misleads you, and leads you to the Hell-Fire.
3. When the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, was sent with the mission to establish Islam, he did not do it on his own. Rather, Allah chose for him companions who accompanied him and who carried the Message until it was complete.
These three aspects show the importance of having good companions, companions who are righteous. Such a companion will help you to do what is good and remind you of Allah, he will enjoin what is good and forbid what is evil. These aspects also show the importance of avoiding befriending bad companions, because such a companion will have a bad effect upon you, they help you to do those deeds which are displeasing to Allah and which lead to the Hell-Fire.
The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, gave a good similitude regarding this. He, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, said: “The case of the good companion and the bad companion is like that of the seller of musk and the blower of the bellows (ironsmith). As for the seller of musk, he will either give you some of the musk, or you will purchase some from him, or at least you will come away having experienced its good smell. Whereas the blower of the bellows will either burn your clothing, or at least you will come away having experienced its repugnant smell.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]
The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, explained the matter of good companionship, so that no room is left for doubt or confusion, when he, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, said: “A person is upon the religion of his close friend, so beware whom you befriend.” [Abu Daawood and At-Tirmithi]
This means that a person will be upon the same methodology as his friend, the same path as his friend, the same nature, manner and behaviour as his friend. So we must be careful whom we befriend. There is an Arabic saying: ‘Your companion is what pulls you to something.’ So if your companion is good, he will pull you towards that which is good. He will order us with what is good and forbid us from what is evil. If he observes us committing sins he would warn us, if he becomes aware of our shortcomings he would advise us, and if he finds a fault in us he would cover it and not disclose it to others. About this, the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, said: “…Whoever conceals (the fault of) a Muslim, Allah will conceal his fault on the day of Judgment.” [Abu Daawood]
So should you see a fault in your brother, you should wish to remove that fault from him and not expose it to the people. This is what is required by brotherhood and again stresses the importance of choosing friends who are upon the correct way, who are loyal, and who hide your faults whilst ordering you with good and forbidding you from evil, who stand beside you and support you, and co-operate with you upon all that is good.
This principle is important from the standpoint of how the religion is to be established, and from the standpoint of what brotherhood is and what it does. Indeed, the reason that one takes a companion is to help him establish Islam, and to help him worship Allah. We find a good example in the Prophet Moosaa, may Allah exalt his mention, the one whom Allah chose and spoke to. When Allah sent him to Pharaoh, he (Moosaa), may Allah exalt his mention, said as Allah informs us saying (what means): “And appoint for me a helper from my family, Haaroon - my brother; increase my strength with him, and let him share my task (of conveying Allah’s Message and Prophethood), that we may glorify You much and remember You much.” [Qur’an; 20: 29-34]
Moosaa, may Allah exalt his mention, wanted his brother to support him and help him, protect him and accompany him. This is exactly what the believers do for one another. For the thing that binds the believers together and makes them brothers is the bond of faith. The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, said: “There are three characteristics; whoever has them will taste the sweetness of faith: That Allah and His Messenger are more beloved to him than all else, that he loves a person and does not love him except for the sake of Allah, and that he would hate to revert to unbelief just as he would hate to be thrown into the Fire.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]
Thus the connection between the believers is based upon faith and sincere brotherhood. Beware against taking any companion if such companionship is based upon other than this, for if you were to do that you would then bite your hands in grief. Just as the unjust ones will bite their hands in grief. Allah Says (what means): “And (remember) the Day when the wrong-doer (oppressor, polytheist etc.) will bite at his hand, he will say: ‘Oh! Would that I had taken a path with the Messenger. Ah! Woe to me! Would that I had never taken so-and-so as a friend! He indeed led me astray from the Reminder (the Qur’an) after it had come to me….’” [Qur’an; 25:27]
And Allah Says (what means): “And whosoever turns away from the remembrance of the Most Beneficent (Allah), We appoint for him Satan to be a Qareen (intimate companion) to him.” [Qur’an; 43:36]
So all of the physical togetherness that you see around you, which is based upon other than faith will be wiped away on that Day, and it will be a source of misery and torture for them. Allah Says (what means): “Friends on that Day will be foes one to another except the pious.” [Qur’an; 43:67]
Article source: http://www.islamweb.net/emainpage/
The Muslim is in the shadow of his charity
Once upon a time, there was a man named Ibn Gud‘aan. He related his story: “I once went out during the spring and I saw my camels healthy and with big udders that were filled with milk. I looked at my favourite she-camel and told myself that I would offer it as charity for my poor neighbour, who had seven daughters. I took it and knocked on the neighbour’s door. When he opened the door, I said to him: ‘Please accept this she-camel as a gift from me.’ He was thrilled and speechless. He benefited a great deal from that she-camel; he used to drink from its milk and carry the firewood that he gathered on its back. “
Later on, spring was over and summer came with its high temperatures and drought. The Bedouins began moving from one place to another in their pursuit of water and pasture.
Ibn Gud‘aan added: “We set off seeking underground water, in this wide desert. I entered one of these holes to bring some water, while my three sons waited for me above. I lost my way in those underground tunnels and could not come out!”
The sons waited three days for their father to come out of the hole, but he never showed up. They thought that he had lost his way and died from hunger. In fact, they wanted him dead so as to get hold of his fortune. They hastened to their house and divided his money between them! Then, they remembered that their father had given their neighbour a she-camel; so, they went to him asking him to give it back: “Either you give the she-camel back to us and take this he-camel in exchange or we will take it by force and you will not get anything in return.”
The neighbour said: “I will inform your father of what you are doing.” They said: “He is already dead.” The neighbour exclaimed: “Dead! What? How did that happen? Where did he die?”
They answered: “He went into an underground hole and never came out.” The neighbour said: “Take the she-camel and I do not want your camel, just guide me to that hole.” The three sons took the neighbour to the hole and left. The neighbour took a rope, tied it to a rock next to the hole, took a flame and crawled down into the hole. He kept crawling and creeping inside that hole until he smelled water. Suddenly, he heard moaning and groaning; he kept moving forward, probing in the mud until he touched a body of a man. He placed his hands over his nose so as to make sure that he was still breathing; he pulled him out of that hole after blindfolding him so as to protect his eyes from the strong light of the sun outside.
The neighbour rescued Ibn Gud‘aan; fed him with some dates, then carried him on his back and took him to his house. Ibn Gud‘aan was returned to life. The neighbour inquired: “Ibn Gud‘aan, tell me how could you survive a whole week under the ground?”
Ibn Gud‘aan answered: “When I lost my way inside the hole and could not come out, I sat by a spring of water so as not to die out of thirst. Yet, water alone would not keep me alive; after three days I was extremely hungry and did not know what to do. I lay on my back, putting all my trust in Allah The Exalted, believing that He Would Save me from that calamity. Suddenly, I felt drops of milk falling into my mouth; I sat down, but could not see anything, for it was black darkness down there. I felt a pot of milk near my mouth and I used to drink from that pot until I was full, then the pot would disappear. This happened three times a day, but two days ago the pot did not appear to me and I do not know why?”
The neighbour said to Ibn Gud‘aan: “I can tell you why. Your sons thought that you were dead, so, two days ago they came to me and took the she-camel, that you had given me, and this was the she-camel that produced the milk that you were drinking from all those days inside the hole. Indeed, Muslims are in the shadow of their charities.” [Each one is in the shadow of his charity]
Anas ibn Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, said: “Good deeds shield one against a bad and ill-fated death, mishaps, diseases and doom; indeed, the people of goodness in this life are the people of goodness in the Hereafter.” [Al-Albani: Saheeh]
Article source: http://www.islamweb.net/emainpage/
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